02 Jul 2024 Ref-No#: 6256

Is slavery considered moral in Islam or was it a necessary evil which was accepted at the time? If so in an ideal islamic state today would it be allowed??


Wa ‘alaykum as-salām wa raḥmatullāhi wa barakātuhu,

Exploring Islam’s ethical stance on slavery necessitates navigating through its historical context and contemporary implications. Historically, slavery was widespread across civilizations, including during the time of Prophet Muhammad (ṣallAllāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and early Islamic societies. Islam did not initiate slavery but introduced reforms aimed at its gradual abolition through ethical and legal measures.

Historical Context and Moral Evaluation

In 7th-century Arabia, where slavery was deeply entrenched in socio-economic structures, Islam instituted significant reforms to mitigate its negative impacts and eventually eliminate it. The Quran and Prophetic teachings emphasized the humane treatment of slaves and encouraged their manumission (freeing). This approach was revolutionary, challenging prevailing norms and promoting social justice.

Evolution towards Abolition

While slavery persisted in Islamic societies due to its entrenched nature, Islam provided mechanisms to gradually phase it out. These included freeing slaves as expiation for certain sins, financial support for manumission, and promoting voluntary emancipation (Mukātabah).

Contemporary Interpretation and Application

Contemporary Islamic scholars universally agree that the historical practice of slavery is incompatible with modern ethical standards and human rights principles. Core Islamic values such as justice, equality, and compassion necessitate a reinterpretation that aligns with the abolitionist spirit fostered by Islamic ethics.

Moral Considerations in an Ideal Islamic State

In an ideal Islamic state today, policies would be guided by principles of justice and human dignity, unequivocally rejecting any form of slavery or exploitation. Quranic injunctions and Prophetic traditions advocating for the rights and fair treatment of slaves serve as timeless ethical guidelines. These principles emphasize respect for human autonomy, dignity, and the eradication of coercion and exploitation.


Acknowledging its historical context, Islamic teachings on slavery underscore a trajectory towards its gradual abolition and the elevation of human rights. In contemporary discourse, Islam advocates for a world where justice and compassion prevail, fostering an ethical framework that unequivocally opposes slavery in any form. This evolution reflects Islam’s commitment to universal ethical principles that uphold the sanctity and equality of all human beings.


  • Quranic Recognition: The Quran acknowledges the existence of slavery without explicitly endorsing it, while providing ethical guidelines for its humane treatment and eventual elimination.
  • Reformative Approach: Islam aimed to reform the institution of slavery within the socio-economic realities of its time, paving the way for its eventual abolition.
  • Modern Islamic Perspective: Contemporary Islamic scholarship overwhelmingly condemns slavery, viewing it as incompatible with Islamic values and modern human rights norms.

This comprehensive approach highlights Islam’s progressive stance towards social justice and human dignity, advocating for a world free from the shackles of exploitation and inequality.

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